Int J Biol Sci 2010; 6(7):675-681. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6.675 This issue


The application of Toll like receptors for cancer therapy

Eui Young So, Toru Ouchi

NUHS, Systems Biology Program, Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Evanston, IL 60201, USA

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So EY, Ouchi T. The application of Toll like receptors for cancer therapy. Int J Biol Sci 2010; 6(7):675-681. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6.675. Available from

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Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins play key roles in immune responses against infection. Using TLR proteins, host can recognize the conserved molecular structures found in pathogens called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). At the same time, some TLRs are able to detect specific host molecules, such as high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and heat shock proteins (hsp), and lead to inflammatory responses. Thus, it has been suggested that TLRs are involved in the development of many pathogenic conditions. Recent advances in TLR-related research not only provide us with scientific information, but also show the therapeutic potential against diseases, such as autoimmune disease and cancer. In this mini review, we demonstrate how TLRs pathways could be involved in cancer development and their therapeutic application, and discuss recent patentable subjects, in particular, that are targeting this unique pathway.

Keywords: TLR, vaccination, breast cancer, bladder cancer, colon cancer, skin tumor, carcinoma, HPV