Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(9):863-871. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6744 This issue

Research Paper

Permethrin Induction of Multiple Cytochrome P450 Genes in Insecticide Resistant Mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus

Youhui Gong1,2, Ting Li1, Lee Zhang1,3, Xiwu Gao2✉, Nannan Liu1✉

1. Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.
2. Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.
3. Genomics and Sequencing Laboratory, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Gong Y, Li T, Zhang L, Gao X, Liu N. Permethrin Induction of Multiple Cytochrome P450 Genes in Insecticide Resistant Mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(9):863-871. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6744. Available from

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The expression of some insect P450 genes can be induced by both exogenous and endogenous compounds and there is evidence to suggest that multiple constitutively overexpressed P450 genes are co-responsible for the development of resistance to permethrin in resistant mosquitoes. This study characterized the permethrin induction profiles of P450 genes known to be constitutively overexpressed in resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. The gene expression in 7 of the 19 P450 genes CYP325K3v1, CYP4D42v2, CYP9J45, (CYP) CPIJ000926, CYP325G4, CYP4C38, CYP4H40 in the HAmCqG8 strain, increased more than 2-fold after exposure to permethrin at an LC50 concentration (10 ppm) compared to their acetone treated counterpart; no significant differences in the expression of these P450 genes in susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes were observed after permethrin treatment. Eleven of the fourteen P450 genes overexpressed in the MAmCqG6 strain, CYP9M10, CYP6Z12, CYP9J33, CYP9J43, CYP9J34, CYP306A1, CYP6Z15, CYP9J45, CYPPAL1, CYP4C52v1, CYP9J39, were also induced more than doubled after exposure to an LC50 (0.7 ppm) dose of permethrin. No significant induction in P450 gene expression was observed in the susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes after permethrin treatment except for CYP6Z15 and CYP9J39, suggesting that permethrin induction of these two P450 genes are common to both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes while the induction of the others are specific to insecticide resistant mosquitoes. These results demonstrate that multiple P450 genes are co-up-regulated in insecticide resistant mosquitoes through both constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, providing additional support for their involvement in the detoxification of insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance.

Keywords: Permethrin induction, P450 genes, detoxification, insecticide resistance, Culex quinquefasciatus.