Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(8):917-930. doi:10.7150/ijbs.14872 This issue
1. Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
2. College of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
3. School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
4. College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang Jiangsu 212018, China
5. Epartment of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080, China
The Hippo pathway, which was identified from genetic screens in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a major size-control function in animals. All key components of the Hippo pathway, including the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie that is the most critical substrate and downstream effector of the Hippo kinase cassette, are found in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. As revealed by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, expression of Hippo pathway genes is particularly enriched in several mitotic tissues, including the ovary, testis, and wing disc. Developmental profiles of Hippo pathway genes are generally similar (with the exception of Yorkie) within each organ, but vary greatly in different tissues showing nearly opposing expression patterns in the wing disc and the posterior silk gland (PSG) on day 2 of the prepupal stage. Importantly, the reduction of Yorkie expression by RNAi downregulated Yorkie target genes in the ovary, decreased egg number, and delayed larval-pupal-adult metamorphosis. In contrast, baculovirus-mediated YorkieCA overexpression upregulated Yorkie target genes in the PSG, increased PSG size, and accelerated larval-pupal metamorphosis. Together the results show that Yorkie potentially facilitates organ growth and metamorphosis, and suggest that the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway is critical for size control, particularly for PSG growth, in the silkworm.
Keywords: Hippo pathway, Yorkie function, size-control, ovary, silk gland, wing disc, domestication, Bombyx mori