Int J Biol Sci 2017; 13(4):518-531. doi:10.7150/ijbs.17800 This issue
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China
* These authors contributed equally to this work.
Background: Neuron apoptosis mediated by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in hippocampus is one of the most important factors accounting for the chronic hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive impairment. As a neuroprotective molecule that is up-regulated in response to various environmental stress, CIRBP was reported to crosstalk with HIF-1α under cellular stress. However, its function under chronic hypobaric hypoxia remains unknown.
Objective: In this study, we tried to identify the role of CIRBP in HIF-1α mediated neuron apoptosis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia and find a possible method to maintain its potential neuroprotective in long-term high altitude environmental exposure.
Methods: We established a chronic hypobaric hypoxia rat model as well as a tissue culture model where SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to 1% hypoxia. Based on these models, we measured the expressions of HIF-1α and CIRBP under hypoxia exposure and examined the apoptosis of neurons by TUNEL immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis of apoptosis related proteins. In addition, by establishing HIF-1α shRNA and pEGFP-CIRBP plasmid transfected cells, we confirmed the role of HIF-1α in chronic hypoxia induced neuron apoptosis and identified the influence of CIRBP over-expression upon HIF-1α and neuron apoptosis in the process of exposure. Furthermore, we measured the expression of the reported hypoxia related miRNAs in both models and the influence of miRNAs' over-expression/knock-down upon CIRBP in the process of HIF-1α mediated neuron apoptosis.
Results: HIF-1α expression as well as neuron apoptosis was significantly elevated by chronic hypobaric hypoxia both in vivo and in vitro. CIRBP was induced in the early stage of exposure (3d/7d); however as the exposure was prolonged (21d), CIRBP level of the hypoxia group became significantly lower than that of control. In addition, HIF-1α knockdown significantly decreased neuron apoptosis under hypoxia, suggesting HIF-1α may be pro-apoptotic in the process of exposure. CIRBP over-expression significantly suppressed HIF-1α up-regulation in hypoxia and inhibited HIF-1α mediated neuron apoptosis. Interestingly, miR-23a was also induced by hypoxia exposure and showed the same changing tendency with CIRBP (increasing in 3d/7d, decreasing in 21d). In addition, over-expressing miR-23a up-regulated CIRBP, down-regulated HIF-1α and attenuated neuron apoptosis.
Conclusion: Cold inducible RNA binding protein is involved in chronic hypoxia induced neuron apoptosis by down-regulating HIF-1α expression, and MiR-23a may be an important tool to maintain CIRBP level and function.
Keywords: chronic hypobaric hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor, cold inducible RNA binding protein, microRNA.