1. Institute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, China;
2. Centre for Nephrology, University College London (UCL) Medical School, Royal Free Campus, UK.
Microparticles (MPs) are a type of extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from the outward budding of plasma membranes during cell apoptosis and/or activation. These microsized particles then release specific contents (e.g., lipids, proteins, microRNAs) which are active participants in a wide range of both physiological and pathological processes at the molecular level, e.g., coagulation and angiogenesis, inflammation, immune responses. Research limitations, such as confusing nomenclature and overlapping classification, have impeded our comprehension of these tiny molecules. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently the greatest contributor to end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) worldwide, and its public health impact will continue to grow due to the persistent increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). MPs have recently been considered as potentially involved in DN onset and progression, and this review juxtaposes some of the research updates about the possible mechanisms from several relevant aspects and insights into the therapeutic perspectives of MPs in clinical management and pharmacological treatment of DN patients.
Keywords: microparticles, diabetic nephropathy, transcellular crosstalk, insulin resistence, endoplasmic reticulum stress, vascular endothelial growth factor A.