Int J Biol Sci 2018; 15(1):44-57. doi:10.7150/ijbs.25106 This issue

Research Paper

MiR-375 Has Contrasting Effects on Newcastle Disease Virus Growth Depending on the Target Gene

Xinglong Wang*, Yanqing Jia*, Xiangwei Wang, Chongyang Wang, Changjie Lv, Xiaoqin Li, Zhili Chu, Qingsong Han, Sa Xiao, Shuxia Zhang, Zengqi Yang

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
Wang X, Jia Y, Wang X, Wang C, Lv C, Li X, Chu Z, Han Q, Xiao S, Zhang S, Yang Z. MiR-375 Has Contrasting Effects on Newcastle Disease Virus Growth Depending on the Target Gene. Int J Biol Sci 2018; 15(1):44-57. doi:10.7150/ijbs.25106. Available from

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Graphic abstract

MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptional gene expression via either translational repression or mRNA degradation. They have important roles in both viral infection and host anti-infection processes. We discovered that the miR-375 is significantly upregulated in Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-infected chicken embryonic visceral tissues using a small RNA sequencing approach. Further research revealed that the overexpression of miR-375 markedly decreases the replication of the velogenic NDV F48E9 and the lentogenic NDV La Sota by targeting the M gene of NDV in DF-1 cells. Interestingly, miR-375 has another target, ELAVL4, which regulates chicken fibrocyte cell cycle progression and decreases NDV proliferation. In addition, miR-375 can influence bystander cells by its secretion in culture medium. Our results indicated that miR-375 is an inhibitor of NDV, but can also enhance NDV growth by reducing the expression of its target ELAVL4. These results emphasize the complex roles of microRNAs in the regulation of viral infections.

Keywords: Newcastle disease virus, microRNAs, miR-375, ELAVL4, M gene