Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(15):2989-3001. doi:10.7150/ijbs.49890 This issue


The Role of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Wei Tan1,2, Jingling Zou1,2, Shigeo Yoshida3, Bing Jiang1,2, Yedi Zhou1,2✉

1. Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China;
2. Hunan Clinical Research Center of Ophthalmic Disease, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China;
3. Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Tan W, Zou J, Yoshida S, Jiang B, Zhou Y. The Role of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(15):2989-3001. doi:10.7150/ijbs.49890. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a blinding eye disease which incidence gradually increases with age. Inflammation participates in AMD pathogenesis, including choroidal neovascularization and geographic atrophy. It is also a kind of self-protective regulation from injury for the eyes. In this review, we described inflammation in AMD pathogenesis, summarized the roles played by inflammation-related cytokines, including pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as leukocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes) in the innate or adaptive immunity in AMD. Possible clinical applications such as potential diagnostic biomarkers and anti-inflammatory therapies were also discussed. This review overviews the inflammation as a target of novel effective therapies in treating AMD.

Keywords: inflammation, cytokine, leukocyte, age-related macular degeneration