Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(14):5369-5390. doi:10.7150/ijbs.73949 This issue

Review

Tumor Microenvironment and its Implications for Antitumor Immunity in Cholangiocarcinoma: Future Perspectives for Novel Therapies

Hengsong Cao1*, Tian Huang1*, Mingrui Dai2*, Xiangyi Kong1*, Hanyuan Liu3, Zhiying Zheng4, Guoqiang Sun3, Guangshun Sun3, Dawei Rong1, Zehua Jin5, Weiwei Tang1✉, Yongxiang Xia1✉

1. Hepatobiliary/Liver Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Living Donor Transplantation, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
2. Stomatological college of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
3. Department of General Surgery, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
4. Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
5. Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University,Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
*Indicates first authors.

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Citation:
Cao H, Huang T, Dai M, Kong X, Liu H, Zheng Z, Sun G, Sun G, Rong D, Jin Z, Tang W, Xia Y. Tumor Microenvironment and its Implications for Antitumor Immunity in Cholangiocarcinoma: Future Perspectives for Novel Therapies. Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(14):5369-5390. doi:10.7150/ijbs.73949. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v18p5369.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has been increasing over the past few years. Although there are surgery, chemotherapy and other conventional treatment methods, the effect is not as expected. At present, immunotherapy has become the research frontier of cancer treatment, and CCA tumor microenvironment (TME) is becoming a hot exploration direction of immunobiology. TME can affect tumor progression through changes in metabolism, secretion and immunity. Accordingly, understanding the role played by immune cells and stromal cells in TME is important for the study of CCA immunotherapy. This review will discuss the interactions between immune cells (including CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, myeloid suppressor cells, mast cells, and neutrophils) and stromal cells (including cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells) in the TME of CCA. In addition, we will also discuss current research results on TME of CCA and recent advances in immunotherapy.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, tumor microenvironment, immune mechanism, targeted therapy, prognostic markers, immunotherapy