Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and the Comprehensive Cancer Center of CWRU. 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is involved in many cellular processes including cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, viral infection, and apoptosis. These cellular activities often rely on the localization of PML to unique subnuclear structures known as PML nuclear bodies (NBs). More than 50 cellular proteins are known to traffic in and out of PML NBs, either transiently or constitutively. In order to understand the dynamics of these NBs, it is important to delineate the regulation of PML itself. PML is subject to extensive regulation at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. Many of these modes of regulation depend on the cellular context and the presence of extracellular signals. This review focuses on the current knowledge of regulation of PML under normal cellular conditions as well as the role for regulation of PML in viral infection and cancer.
Keywords: PML, nuclear body, tumor suppressor, cell signaling, virus