Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(7):666-679. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6610 This issue

Research Paper

Risk Factors and Primary Prevention Trials for Type 1 Diabetes

Yan-Ling Wu1✉, Yan-Ping Ding1, Jian Gao1, Yoshimasa Tanaka2, Wen Zhang3✉

1. Virus Inspection Department, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xincheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, PR China.
2. Center for Innovation in Immunoregulative Technology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.
3. Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, PR China.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Wu YL, Ding YP, Gao J, Tanaka Y, Zhang W. Risk Factors and Primary Prevention Trials for Type 1 Diabetes. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(7):666-679. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6610. Available from

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing β-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder.

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes, pathogenesis, susceptibility gene, epigenetics, environmental factors, c-kit, PD-1, prevention trials.