Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(12):4768-4780. doi:10.7150/ijbs.75056 This issue

Review

Long COVID and its Management

Ho Cheng Koc1,2, Jing Xiao1,2,3, Weiwei Liu1,4, Yong Li3, Guokai Chen1,2,✉

1. Centre of Reproduction, Development & Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China
2. Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China
3. Interventional Medical Centre, Zhuhai People's Hospital, Zhuhai Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University, Zhuhai 519000, China
4. Bioimaging and Stem Cell Core Facility, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China

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Citation:
Koc HC, Xiao J, Liu W, Li Y, Chen G. Long COVID and its Management. Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(12):4768-4780. doi:10.7150/ijbs.75056. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v18p4768.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

The pandemic of COVID-19 is the biggest public health crisis in 21st Century. Besides the acute symptoms after infection, patients and society are also being challenged by the long-term health complications associated with COVID-19, commonly known as long COVID. While health professionals work hard to find proper treatments, large amount of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years. In order to deal with long COVID efficiently, it is important for people to keep up with current progresses and take proactive actions on long COVID. For this purpose, this review will first introduce the general background of long COVID, and then discuss its risk factors, diagnostic indicators and management strategies. This review will serve as a useful resource for people to understand and prepare for long COVID that will be with us in the foreseeable future.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, SARS, long COVID, post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), post-acute COVID syndrome (PACS), vaccine, management, risk factor, drug repurposing