Int J Biol Sci 2023; 19(5):1430-1454. doi:10.7150/ijbs.80430 This issue Cite
1. Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shenzhen Institute of Translational Medicine, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518035, China.
2. Division of Nephrology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University, Shenzhen 518036, China.
3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
4. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
5. Human Histology & Embryology Section, Department of Surgery, Dentistry, Pediatrics & Gynecology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona 37134, Italy.
* Contributed equally to this work.
Exosomes, as therapeutically relevant cell-secreted extracellular vesicles, have attracted enormous interest because they participate in intercellular communication and facilitate wound healing. Stem cell-derived exosomes exhibit similar biological effects to source cells with the exception of low immunogenicity and no tumorigenicity, as well as superior efficacy in promoting wound healing. Exosomes accelerate wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation, as well as balancing inflammatory responses. Particularly, when exosomes are genetically modified or used in combination with materials, they can exhibit better comprehensive therapeutic properties, such as enriching active ingredients, targeted delivery, and physiological barrier to penetration, which are not available in traditional single products. Besides, exosomes have also been considered for diagnostic and therapeutic uses related to wounds, such as repairing complex wounds, enhancing graft success, treating related complications, and serving as diagnostic biomarkers. However, their clinical applications still face challenges, as reliable commercial products are not yet available. This review will focus on recent research advances that describe the characteristics and isolation of exosomes, introduce the sources of exosomes suitable for wound repair and related complications, illustrate the value of engineered exosomes and their development directions in the future, and provide evidence for the potential therapeutic application of exosomes in wound healing, as well as discuss potential risks, challenges, and solutions for future applications.
Keywords: exosomes, stem cells, engineered exosomes, wound healing, biomaterials, complex wounds, complications, biomarkers.