Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(7):1037-1044. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.1037 This issue

Research Paper

Development and Initial Characterization of a HAPPY Panel for Mapping the X. Tropicalis Genome

Zhihua Jiang1,✉, Jennifer J. Michal1, Kenneth B. Beckman2, Jessica B. Lyons3, Ming Zhang1, Zengxiang Pan1, Daniel S. Rokhsar3, Richard M. Harland3,✉

1. Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6351, USA;
2. Biomedical Genomics Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA;
3. Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Jiang Z, Michal JJ, Beckman KB, Lyons JB, Zhang M, Pan Z, Rokhsar DS, Harland RM. Development and Initial Characterization of a HAPPY Panel for Mapping the X. Tropicalis Genome. Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(7):1037-1044. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.1037. Available from

File import instruction


HAPPY mapping was designed to pursue the analysis of approximately random HAPloid DNA breakage samples using the PolYmerase chain reaction for mapping genomes. In the present study, we improved the method and integrated two other molecular techniques into the process: whole genome amplification and the Sequenom SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotyping assay in order to facilitate whole genome mapping of X. tropicalis. The former technique amplified enough DNA materials to genotype a large number of markers, while the latter allowed for relatively high throughput marker genotyping with multiplex assays on the HAPPY lines. A total of 58 X. tropicalis genes were genotyped on an initial panel of 383 HAPPY lines, which contributed to formation of a working panel of 146 lines. Further genotyping of 29 markers on the working panel led to construction of a HAPPY map for the X. tropicalis genome. We believe that our improved HAPPY method described in the present study has paved the way for the community to map different genomes with a simple, but powerful approach.

Keywords: HAPPY mapping, whole genome amplification, multiplex genotyping assay, mapping X. tropicalis genome.