1. Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430014, Hubei, China.
2. Department of Intervention & Vascular Surgery, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and echnology, Wuhan, 430014, Hubei, China.
3. Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
4. Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Education; NHC Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation; Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
*These authors contribute equally to this work
Ferroptosis is a form of programmed cell death characterized by elevated intracellular ferrous ion levels and increased lipid peroxidation. Since its discovery and characterization in 2012, considerable progress has been made in understanding the regulatory mechanisms and pathophysiological functions of ferroptosis. Recent findings suggest that numerous organ injuries (e.g., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and degenerative pathologies (e.g., aortic dissection and neurodegenerative disease) are driven by ferroptosis. Conversely, insufficient ferroptosis has been linked to tumorigenesis. Furthermore, a recent study revealed the effect of ferroptosis on hematopoietic stem cells under physiological conditions. The regulatory mechanisms of ferroptosis identified to date include mainly iron metabolism, such as iron transport and ferritinophagy, and redox systems, such as glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)-glutathione (GSH), ferroptosis-suppressor-protein 1 (FSP1)-CoQ10, FSP1-vitamin K (VK), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-CoQ, and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1)-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the important regulatory role played by epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA, RNA, and protein methylation, in ferroptosis. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of the molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks of ferroptosis identified to date, with a focus on the regulatory role of DNA, RNA, and protein methylation. Furthermore, we discuss some debated findings and unanswered questions that should be the foci of future research in this field.
Keywords: Ferroptosis, DNA methylation, RNA m6A methylation, Protein methylation, Histone methylation, Disulfidptosis