1. Joint Shantou International Eye Center, Shantou University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shantou, China.
2. Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3. Department of Medicine, Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah
The diminished level of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) in milk causes an enhanced level of platelet activating factor (PAF) in the skin, leading to a severe hair loss phenotype during neonatal pup's lactation. The deletion of very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) prevents the expression and secretion of PAFAH. Here we revealed that deletion of Roundabout 4 (ROBO4) in mice ameliorated hair loss phenotype via reducing PAF concentration in skin. As a consequence, the neonatal pups with ROBO4 deletion lactated by mother with VLDLR deletion showed normal hair phenotype during lactation. In details,ROBO4 deletion reduced the protein but not mRNA expression of two PAF synthetic enzymes LPCAT1/LPCAT2 in macrophage as well as the expression of PAF receptor in both macrophage and ocular tissue, but increased PAFAH protein in serum. On the other hand, RNA expression profile analysis in macrophages revealed that the genes involving in oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome obviously decreased their expression in response to ROBO4 deletion. Moreover, through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, we found that ATP concentration also reduced in ROBO4 deletion macrophages. Because ribosome and energy are very important factors for the mRNA translation, we then tested whether ROBO4 deletion affects LPCAT1/LPCAT2 mRNA translation using polyribosome assay. As expected, the mRNA level of LPCAT1/LPCAT2 significantly decreased in polyribosome in ROBO4 deletion macrophage comparing to that of wild type. Additionally, mice with ROBO4 deletion suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 expression as well as the phosphorylation of p44/42 and p65, but enhanced the AKT phosphorylation. Collectively, ROBO4 deletion alleviates PAF- and LPS-mediated inflammation. And above results also indicate PAF signal might be a crosstalk point of ROBO4- and VLDLR-activated pathways.
Keywords: ROBO4, PAF, hair loss, oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome