Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(15):4271-4284. doi:10.7150/ijbs.62380 This issue

Research Paper

GPR109A alleviate mastitis and enhances the blood milk barrier by activating AMPK/Nrf2 and autophagy

Wenjin Guo, Wen Li, Yingchun Su, Shu Liu, Xingchi Kan, Xin Ran, Yu Cao, Shoupeng Fu, Juxiong Liu

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.

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Citation:
Guo W, Li W, Su Y, Liu S, Kan X, Ran X, Cao Y, Fu S, Liu J. GPR109A alleviate mastitis and enhances the blood milk barrier by activating AMPK/Nrf2 and autophagy. Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(15):4271-4284. doi:10.7150/ijbs.62380. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v17p4271.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Mastitis causes great psychological and physical pain among women. Our previous studies found that niacin has anti-inflammatory effect, and the realization of this function depends on GPR109A. However, there are no previous reports about the anti-inflammatory function of GPR109A in mastitis. In our study, we observed the effect of niacin on the WT and GPR109A-/- mice mastitis model. The results showed that administration of niacin to WT mice reduced the damage, proinflammatory mediators and protected the integrity of the blood milk barrier in mammary gland. While in GPR109A-/- mice, there was no effect on the above indexes. In mammary epithelial cells, GPR109A was able to promote autophagy and Nrf2 nuclear import through AMPK. In LPS-induced mammary epithelial cells, niacin inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory response and downregulation of tight junction proteins, and these effects were eliminated by knocking down GPR109A, blocking autophagy or inhibiting Nrf2 nuclear import. These results indicate that in mastitis, GPR109A promotes autophagy and Nrf2 nuclear import through AMPK, thereby inhibiting inflammatory damage to the mammary gland and repairing the blood milk barrier. Our results suggested that GPR109A may be a potential target for the treatment of mastitis.

Keywords: Niacin, Mastitis, GPR109A, AMPK/Nrf2, Autophagy, Blood milk barrier