1. Department of General Surgery (Vascular Surgery), the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.
2. Department of Interventional Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.
3. Laboratory of Nucleic Acids in Medicine for National high-level talents, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.
4. School of Cardiovascular Medicine and Sciences, King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Faculty of Life Science and Medicine, King's College London, London SE5 9NU, United Kingdom.
5. Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom.
6. Key Laboratory of Medical Electrophysiology, Ministry of Education & Medical Electrophysiological Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Collaborative Innovation Center for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease of Sichuan Province, Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.
7. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Key Laboratory of Luzhou, Luzhou, 646000, China.
8. Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Luzhou 646000, China.
* These authors have contributed equally to this study.
Atherosclerotic vascular calcification contributes to increased risk of death in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Assessing the type and severity of inflammation is crucial in the treatment of numerous cardiovascular conditions. IL-1β, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, plays diverse roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular calcification. Several large-scale, population cohort trials have shown that the incidence of cardiovascular events is clinically reduced by the administration of anti-IL-1β therapy. Anti-IL-1β therapy might reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events by affecting atherosclerotic vascular calcification, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of IL-1β in atherosclerotic vascular calcification, and describe the latest results reported in clinical trials evaluating anti-IL-1β therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review will aid in improving current understanding of the pathophysiological roles of IL-1β and mechanisms underlying its activity.
Keywords: IL-1β, vascular calcification, cardiovascular events, signaling pathways